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[384] Westmead Hospital in 1978 was the last major facility to open. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, Perth. Western Australia has served as the setting for a number of works of Australian literature. [111] Since Sydney borders the Great Dividing Range, it can occasionally experience dry, westerly Föhn-like winds usually between winter and spring, as it lies on the leeward side of the ranges, thereby elevating fire danger in the region. [18][19][20] It is classified as an Alpha Global City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. [2], Macquarie gave a charter in 1817 to form the first bank in Australia, the Bank of New South Wales. The Royal National Park was proclaimed on 26 April 1879 and with 13,200 hectares (51 square miles) is the second oldest national park in the world. [5][67] Following the depression of the 1890s, the six colonies agreed to form the Commonwealth of Australia. In federal politics, Sydney was initially considered as a possibility for Australia's capital city; the newly created city of Canberra ultimately filled this role. [423] Solar panels have been established on many CBD buildings in an effort to minimise carbon pollution by around 3,000 tonnes a year. Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea and other islands on the Australian tectonic plate are together … The centre of Melbourne is around a river called the Yarra River.Melbourne also has many big parks and … From 1791 on, however, the more regular arrival of ships and the beginnings of trade lessened the feeling of isolation and improved supplies. The Government has announced plans to sell nearly 300 historic public housing properties in the harbourside neighbourhoods of Millers Point, Gloucester Street, and The Rocks. [57] The tourism industry contributes $9.3 billion to the Western Australian economy and supports 94,000 jobs within the state. due to the extensive number of Federation homes. The Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race is a 1,170-kilometre (727-mile) event that starts from Sydney Harbour on Boxing Day. Most of the state is a low plateau with an average elevation of about 400 metres (1,200 ft), very low relief, and no surface runoff. The settlement was formally annexed on 21 January 1827 by Lockyer when he commanded the Union Jack be raised and a feu de joie fired by the troops. Australien is da gresste Stoot vom australischn Kontinent. [315] Prominent theatres in the city today include State Theatre, Theatre Royal, Sydney Theatre, The Wharf Theatre, and Capitol Theatre. [68] Construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge served to alleviate some of the effects of the economic downturn by employing 1,400 men between 1924 and 1932. Australien liegt auf da Sidhoibkugl noadwestli vo Neiseeland. The Australian Bureau of Statistics has stated that most who nominate "Australian" as their ancestry are part of the, Of any ancestry. [142] Westfield Sydney, located beneath the Sydney Tower, is the largest shopping centre by area in Sydney. Healthcare facilities remained hopelessly inadequate despite the arrival of a prefabricated hospital with the Second Fleet and the construction of brand new hospitals at Parramatta, Windsor, and Liverpool in the 1790s. [78], The Sydney Basin bioregion includes coastal features of cliffs, beaches, and estuaries. He travelled a short way further north and arrived at Sydney Cove on 26 January 1788. Victoria is a state in Australia, in the south-east corner of the country. [85] The plants in this community tend to have rough and spiky leaves, as they're grown in areas with low soil fertility. Stellenangebote. (1990) Taken for Granted: the Bushland of Sydney and Its Suburbs, Sydney, William, E and Airey, DW. The leading community radio stations are Curtin FM 100.1, 6RTR FM 92.1, Sonshine FM 98.5 (6SON) and 91.3 SportFM (6WSM). The region is so named for its characteristically comparatively hilly topography as the Cumberland Plain lifts up, joining the Hornsby Plateau. It is estimated that half of the native people in Sydney died during the smallpox epidemic of 1789. [260], Home ownership in Sydney was less common than renting prior to the Second World War but this trend has since reversed. An entrance from The Goods Line–a pedestrian pathway and former railway line–is located on the eastern border of the site. The enforced rehousing of local residents due to the Millers Point/Barangaroo development has caused significant controversy despite the $6 billion worth of economic activity it is expected to generate. Average annual rainfall varies from 300 millimetres (12 in) at the edge of the Wheatbelt region to 1,400 millimetres (55 in) in the wettest areas near Northcliffe, but from November to March, evaporation exceeds rainfall, and it is generally very dry. [38] Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement. Green, D., 1973. [35][36], At the 2016 census, 55.5% of respondents identified as Christian and 32.5% as having no religion. It has hosted over 2.8 million international visitors in 2013, or nearly half of all international visits to Australia. In 1831 Scottish botanist Robert Brown produced a scientific paper, General view of the botany of the vicinity of Swan River. [170] Another prominent park and garden in the west is Central Gardens Nature Reserve in Merrylands West. The native people of Wales, the Welsh, have their own culture and traditions.They have their own Celtic language, Welsh.Although not all Welsh people can … 'Northern Sydney' may also include the suburbs in the Upper North Shore, Lower North Shore and the Northern Beaches. Strathfield Railway Station is a secondary railway hub within Sydney, and major station on the Suburban and Northern lines. Zum Stoot Australien ghern nem da Hauptlandmassn vom Kontinent aa Tasmanien und andare kloane vorglogate Insln. [231] There are 15 separate parks under the administration of the City of Sydney. Consequently, Sydney experienced population growth and increased cultural diversification throughout the post-war period. [332][333] Kings Cross was previously considered the red-light district though the 2014-2020 lockout laws affected this area most. [221][256] The largest reported occupations are professionals, clerical and administrative workers, managers, technicians and trades workers, and community and personal service workers. [316], Many writers have originated in and set their work in Sydney. Phillip described Port Jackson as being "without exception the finest harbour in the world". [348] Yachting has been popular amongst wealthier residents since the 1840s and the Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron was founded in 1862. [361] The city is also the home of numerous branches of the intermediate District Court of New South Wales and the lower Local Court of New South Wales. The inner city measures 25 square kilometres (10 square miles), the Greater Sydney region covers 12,367 square kilometres (4,775 square miles), and the city's urban area is 1,687 square kilometres (651 square miles) in size.[74][75][76]. This descends relatively sharply to the coastal plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment (as with the Darling Range/Darling Scarp near Perth). The national Wallabies rugby union team competes in Sydney in international matches such as the Bledisloe Cup, Rugby Championship, and World Cup. Two of the most successful tennis players in history: Ken Rosewall and Todd Woodbridge were born in and live in the city. [224], Sydney is one of the most expensive real estate markets globally. [11] By the late 18th century, British and French sailors had begun to explore the Western Australian coast. Demand for emergency medical care increased from 1895 with the introduction of an ambulance service. [115] The summer of 2007–08, however, proved to be the coolest since 1996–97 and is the only summer this century to be at or below average in temperatures. [177] Prospect Hill, a historically significant ridge in the west and the only area in Sydney with ancient volcanic activity,[178] is also listed on the NSW State Heritage Register. In ihr sind die weltweit bekannten Sehenswürdigkeiten Sydney Opera House und Sydney Harbour Bridge sowie historische Bauten, Einkaufszentren, Chinatown, der Paddy’s Market, Gastronomie-, Unterhaltungs- und Kultureinrichtungen zu finden. Even soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. In the 1850s and 1860s, the railway reached areas that are now outer suburbs of Sydney.[386]. 10.3% chose not to state a religion. [221] Whilst terrace houses are common in the inner city areas, it is detached houses that dominate the landscape in the outer suburbs. Vereinskanäle. The Swifts are competitors in the national women's netball league. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. The suburb of Cronulla in southern Sydney is close to Royal National Park, Australia's oldest national park. The Northern Beaches area extends south to the entrance of Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour), west to Middle Harbour and north to the entrance of Broken Bay. [398] Sydney's railway was first constructed in 1854 with progressive extension to the network to serve both freight and passengers across the city, suburbs, and beyond to rural New South Wales. There was a 30% increase in the number of apartments in Sydney between 1996 and 2006. [22], The bulk of Western Australia consists of the extremely old Yilgarn craton and Pilbara craton which merged with the Deccan Plateau of India, Madagascar and the Karoo and Zimbabwe cratons of Southern Africa, in the Archean Eon to form Ur, one of the oldest supercontinents on Earth (3 – 3.2  billion years ago). The people of Sydney warmly welcomed Queen Elizabeth II in 1954 when the reigning monarch stepped onto Australian soil for the first time to commence her Australian Royal Tour. To relieve congestion on the Sydney Harbour Bridge, the Sydney Harbour Tunnel opened in August 1992. [85][86] [82], The most prevalent plant communities in the Sydney region are open grassy woodlands[83] and some pockets of dry sclerophyll forests,[84] which consist of eucalyptus trees, casuarinas, melaleucas, corymbias and angophoras, with shrubs (typically wattles, callistemons, grevilleas and banksias), and a semi-continuous grass in the understory. Hurstville, a large suburb with a multitude of commercial buildings and high-rise residential buildings dominating the skyline, has become a CBD for the southern suburbs.[162]. [114], The Bureau of Meteorology reported that 2002 to 2005 were the warmest summers in Sydney since records began in 1859. [259], Unemployment in the City of Sydney averaged 4.6% for the decade to 2013, much lower than the current rate of unemployment in Western Sydney of 7.3%. Since its completion in 1973 the city's Opera House has become a World Heritage Site and one of the world's most renowned pieces of Modern design. Terrace houses are found in the inner suburbs such as Paddington, The Rocks, Potts Point and Balmain–many of which have been the subject of gentrification. Macarthur Square, a shopping complex in Campbelltown, has become one of the largest shopping complexes in Sydney. [160] Main construction was due to be completed in 2018 but was delayed until 2020. [266] The Australian Securities Exchange began operating in 1987 and with a market capitalisation of $1.6 trillion is now one of the ten largest exchanges in the world. [180] The southwest also features Bankstown Reservoir, the oldest elevated reservoir constructed in reinforced concrete that is still in use and is listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register. … [351], The Royal Sydney Golf Club is based in Rose Bay and since its opening in 1893 has hosted the Australian Open on 13 occasions. Mitwirken. [87][88], Location of Western Australia in Australia. mikanews.de, Berlin. Western Australia is bounded to the east by longitude 129°E, the meridian 129 degrees east of Greenwich, which defines the border with South Australia and the Northern Territory, and bounded by the Indian Ocean to the west and north. When Britain declared war on Germany in 1939, Australia also entered. [244][283] International education contributes $1.6 billion to the local economy and creates demand for 4,000 local jobs each year. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, and thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. Vivid Sydney is an annual outdoor exhibition of art installations, light projections, and music. [31] Boasting over 1,000,000 ha (2,500,000 acres) of nature reserves and parks,[32] its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country. [254], The labour force of Greater Sydney Region in 2016 was 2,272,722 with a participation rate of 61.6%. [293], The median age of Sydney residents is 36 and 12.9% of people are 65 or older. [3] It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, and the Southern Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east, and South Australia to the south-east. The region now mainly features medium- and high-density housing. Far from mass unemployment, there were now labour shortages and women becoming active in male roles. Sixteen and 17 year olds are required to be enrolled in school or a training organisation, be employed or be in a combination of school/training/employment. Robe lies on the southern shore of Guichen Bay, just off the Princes Highway. Melbourne wurde 1837 nach dem damaligen britischen Premierminister Lord Melbourne benannt und ist katholischer sowie anglikanischer … As climate change, greenhouse gas emissions and pollution have become a major issue for Australia, Sydney has in the past been criticised for its lack of focus on reducing pollution, cutting back on emissions and maintaining water quality. [53], Conditions in the colony were not conducive to the development of a thriving new metropolis, but the more regular arrival of ships and the beginnings of maritime trade (such as wool) helped to lessen the burden of isolation. The Museum of Contemporary Art was opened in 1991 and occupies an Art Deco building in Circular Quay. [431], The WaterNSW now manages eleven major dams: Warragamba one of the largest domestic water supply dams in the world,[432] Woronora, Cataract, Cordeaux, Nepean, Avon, Wingecarribee Reservoir, Fitzroy Falls Reservoir, Tallowa, the Blue Mountains Dams, and Prospect Reservoir. [252], Sydney has been ranked between the fifteenth and the fifth most expensive city in the world and is the most expensive city in Australia. [343] 2UE was founded in 1925 and under the ownership of Fairfax Media is the oldest station still broadcasting. Herpetofauna 6 (2): 2–5. [433] Water is collected from five catchment areas covering 16,000 square kilometres (6,178 square miles) and total storage amounts to 2.6 teralitres (0.6 cubic miles). [221] The largest industries by employment across Greater Sydney are Health Care and Social Assistance with 11.6%, Professional Services with 9.8%, Retail Trade with 9.3%, Construction with 8.2%, Education and Training with 8.0%, Accommodation and Food Services 6.7%, and Financial and Insurance Services with 6.6%. This area includes suburbs in the local government areas of Hornsby Shire, City of Ryde, the Municipality of Hunter's Hill and parts of the City of Parramatta. The first Europeans to visit Western Australia belonged to the Dutch Dirk Hartog expedition, who visited the Western Australian coast in 1616. The West Australian Music Industry Awards (WAMis) have been awarded every year to the leading musicians and performers in WA since 2001. Notable actors and television personalities from Western Australia include Heath Ledger, Sam Worthington, Ernie Dingo, Jessica Marais, Megan Gale, Rove McManus, Isla Fisher, and Melissa George. In addition to Financial Services and Tourism, the Creative and Technology sectors are focus industries for the City of Sydney and represented 9% and 11% of its economic output in 2012. Most of Sydney's water storages can be found on tributaries of the Nepean River. [102] The highest minimum temperature recorded at Observatory Hill is 27.6 °C (82 °F), on 6 February 2011, while the lowest maximum temperature is 7.7 °C (46 °F), recorded on 19 July 1868. [33] Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are also well known to international visitors. Haberfield is known as "The Federation Suburb"[by whom?] It is one of nine sister city relationships between Western Australian and Japanese cities. [2][273] Between 1970 and 1985 there was a loss of 180,000 manufacturing jobs. Only 33.1% of the population had both parents born in Australia. They consist of four Perth-based public universities; the University of Western Australia, Curtin University, Edith Cowan University and Murdoch University; and one Fremantle-based private Roman Catholic university, the University of Notre Dame Australia. [362], In common with other Australian capital cities, Sydney has no single local government covering its whole area. ... Er verließ Australien 1966 und betrat den Kontinent nie wieder. [206] Two other important performance venues in Sydney are Town Hall and the City Recital Hall. [243] The Global Cities Index recognises it as number fourteen in the world based on global engagement. The terms "Westralia" and "Westralian" were regularly used in the 19th and 20th century. Phillip named the settlement after Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney. [203] This heralded a change in Sydney's cityscape and with the lifting of height restrictions in the 1960s there came a surge of high-rise construction. Successful films shot in Sydney since then include The Matrix, Lantana, Mission: Impossible 2, Moulin Rouge!, Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones, Australia, and The Great Gatsby. [365] It is responsible for fostering development in the local area, providing local services (waste collection and recycling, libraries, parks, sporting facilities), representing and promoting the interests of residents, supporting organisations that target the local community, and attracting and providing infrastructure for commerce, tourism, and industry. In 2010, 80,000 runners participated which made it the largest run of its kind in the world. Located south of Perth, the heavy industrial area of Kwinana has the nation's largest oil refinery with a capacity of 146,000 barrels of oil per day, producing most of the state's petrol and diesel. Sydney Football Stadium was completed in 1988 and is used for rugby and soccer matches. Prior to the arrival of the British, there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans. Upon his appointment, Governor Lachlan Macquarie set ambitious targets for the architectural design of new construction projects. By 1961 the industry accounted for 39% of all employment and by 1970 over 30% of all Australian manufacturing jobs were in Sydney. [6] Sydney is made up of 658 suburbs, spread across 33 local government areas. Sydney, with a population of 481,000, then became the state capital of New South Wales. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 62(2), 255–263. [44] This lack of democracy eventually became unacceptable for the colony's growing number of free settlers. Sydney's earliest migrants brought with them a passion for sport but were restricted by the lack of facilities and equipment. Batt, K, 1995: Sea breezes on the NSW coast, Offshore Yachting, Oct/Nov 1995, Jamieson Publishing. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. In 1997, the Inner West Light Rail (also known as the Dulwich Hill Line) opened between Central station and Wentworth Park. The first modern human inhabitants of Australia arrived from the north about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Their mandate and operations are governed by the Local Government Act 1995. Most foreign companies in Sydney maintain significant sales and service functions but comparably less production, research, and development capabilities. Products for local consumption and export include western rock lobsters, prawns, crabs, shark and tuna, as well as pearl fishing in the Kimberley region of the state. Modern and International architecture came to Sydney from the 1940s. [43][44] This was to be the location for the new colony. It serves 175 stations across the city and had an annual ridership of 359 million passenger journeys in 2017–18. Sydney Cricket Ground was opened in 1878 and is used for both cricket and Australian rules football fixtures.[345]. Sydney is a coastal basin with the Tasman Sea to the east, the Blue Mountains to the west, the Hawkesbury River to the north, and the Woronora Plateau to the south. Availability: <. Western Australia has two daily newspapers: the Seven West Media-owned tabloid The West Australian and The Kalgoorlie Miner. Australian cities are some of the most car dependent cities in the world,[410] especially by world city standards, although Sydney's is the lowest of Australia's major cities at 66%. [173], To the northwest, Featherdale Wildlife Park, an Australian zoo in Doonside, near Blacktown, is a major tourist attraction, not just for Western Sydney, but for NSW and Australia. [245] The economy was clearly capitalist in nature by the 1840s as the proportion of free settlers increased, the maritime and wool industries flourished, and the powers of the East India Company were curtailed. [13] Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, and the city has the third-largest foreign-born population of any city in the world after London and New York City. In 1829 the Swan River Colony was established on the Swan River by Captain James Stirling. Going east along the Southern Ocean coast is the Goldfields-Esperance region, including the Esperance mallee and the Coolgardie woodlands inland around town of Coolgardie. [284], The population of Sydney in 1788 was less than 1,000. The Sydney CBD is characterised by considerably narrow streets and thoroughfares, created in its convict beginnings in the 18th century. As of 2017,[update] the state has about 2.6 million inhabitants – around 11 percent of the national total – of whom the vast majority (92 percent) live in the south-west corner; 79 percent of the population lives in the Perth area,[4] leaving the remainder of the state sparsely populated. [44][45], Agricultural production in WA is a major contributor to the state and national economy. [375] The Sydney Hospital also housed Australia's first teaching facility for nurses, the Nightingale Wing, established with the input of Florence Nightingale in 1868. In May 2017, evidence of the earliest known life on land may have been found in 3.48-billion-year-old geyserite and other related mineral deposits (often found around hot springs and geysers) uncovered in the Pilbara craton.[23][24]. [313] Sydney's other significant art institution is the Art Gallery of New South Wales which coordinates the coveted Archibald Prize for portraiture. [37], The first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan. [300] A further 10.9% of residents identified themselves as Anglicans and an additional 5.8% as Muslim. Thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world. About five million people live in Sydney which makes it the biggest city in Oceania. A new skyline of concrete and steel skyscrapers swept away much of the old lowrise and often sandstone skyline of the city in the 1960s and 1970s, with Australia Square being the tallest building in Sydney from its completion in 1967 until 1976 and is also notable for being the first skyscraper in Australia. However, even in the Stirling Range, snowfalls rarely exceed 5 cm (2 in) and rarely settle for more than one day. Early Sydney was moulded by the hardship suffered by early settlers. The National Institute of Dramatic Art is based in Sydney and has several famous alumni such as Mel Gibson, Judy Davis, Baz Luhrmann, Cate Blanchett, Hugo Weaving and Jacqueline Mckenzie.[327]. [55] The WA sandalwood industry provides about 40 per cent of the international sandalwood oil market.[56]. Some of them are commemorated in the Sydney Writers Walk at Circular Quay. [317] Watkin Tench's A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay (1789) and A Complete Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson in New South Wales (1793) have remained the best-known accounts of life in early Sydney. Sehenswürdigkeiten tasmanien wikipedia. This article is about the Australian metropolis. The Australian government launched a large scale multicultural immigration program.

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