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The shah's attempt to use Iran's vastly expanded oil revenues after 1973 for an unrealistically ambitious industrial and construction program and a massive military buildup greatly strained Iran's human and institutional resources and caused severe economic and social dislocation. For Washington, the revolution represented a devastating strategic loss. In addition to Ayatollah Khomeini’s politicized Shiite-Islamic discourse, it is further argued, popular revolutionary resolve was prefigured specifically by Marxist … The daughter of an American diplomat recalls the heady summer before the fall of the Shah and the privileges that went with it . L’accession à la présidence des Etats-Unis en 1977 de Jimmy Carter, qui prônait le respect des droits humains fut déterminante pour libérer la parole. In Tabriz, after a police officer shot a teenage protestor, angered demonstrators began to attack particular kinds of property that symbolized either the Pahlevi state (police stations and Resurgence party offices) or un-Islamic values (luxury hotels and liberal movie houses). media caption Iranian Revolution: Why what happened in Iran 40 years ago matters. 1977-1978: Carter's visit. Sharif Emami came to an agreement with opposition leaders for the celebration of Eid al-Fitr (the feast at the end of Ramadan). By the end of 1977, professionals and students had created organizations, written manifestos, and sent letters to the Imperial Palace, but had not mobilized the support of the nation. Civil disobedience of "illegitimate" laws, Opponent, Opponent Responses, and Violence, Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International. Unlike most of the other uprisings that would topple dictators in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and specifically in Qum, Tabriz, Yazd, Tehran, Ifsahan, Religious leaders Ayatollah Khomeini, Shari’atmadari and other clerics; Dr. Karim Sanjabi, Foruhar and Bakhtiyar of the National Front party, The Writers’ Association; the National Organization of University Teachers; Liberation Movement (a political party under the umbrella of National Front; believed in a dynamic Shi’ism that could mobilize masses rather than be directed by the ulama); the Tudeh Party (a political party, severely weakened after an earlier Iranian coup and driven underground by the Iranian government; ideologically aligned with the National Front though far less powerful); Apolitical ulama (even though many of the clerics wished to stay out of politics, they were dragged in by the Shah himself when authorities began to strip the religious establishment of its authority and when the government refused to fight moral laxity); Moderate ulama (led by Ayatollah Kazem Shari’atmadari (senior theologian in Qum), kept open communication with government and desired only that the government abide by its 1906 Constitution, forced to radicalize when the Shah shut down the religious establishment); Militant ulama (led by Ayatollah Khomeini, advocated creation of a clerical Islamic government and wanted ulama to seize political control of Iran); An array of small Marxist and Islamic militant guerilla groups, International humanitarian organizations condemned the Shah’s regime and the brutal methods of SAVAK. Initially, protestors wanted to reestablish 1906-1909 laws that created a constitutional monarchy. Before the next round of fortieth-day services the regime took increasing action; it used the secret police SAVAK to intimidate leaders of the secular opposition while abandoning a few of its most criticized policies and issuing apologies. Hoveyda, who was famous for wearing an orchid in his buttonhole and smoking a pipe, did not leave the country when the Shah left. Many Iranians were upset by the Shah’s administration because, even in the wake of a national oil boom, wealth was unequally distributed. The more religiously affiliated cleric Shari’atmadari called on the country to mourn the students killed in the traditional Islamic manner: forgoing work and attending mosque services on the fortieth day anniversary. Shah and The United States Facing a revolution, the Shah appealed to the United States for support Aug 19, 1978. Fearful of another series of forty-day cycles, the Shah made more concessions: allowance of all parties to campaign in the next election was given, amnesty for hundreds of political prisoners was granted, and a new premier Sharif Emami—who would be far more willing to negotiate with the oppositional religious establishment—was appointed. The State and Revolution in Iran. This was not enough; the campaigners forced the Shah to leave Iran in mid-January. The Iranian Revolution refers to events involving the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who was supported by the United States, and its eventual replacement with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution, supported by various leftist and Islamist organizations and Iranian student movements. That was the beginning of the 1979 revolution which turned the country to more hardline Islam. Khomeini began to use the phrase soon after the Iranian Revolution (1977-1979), and the metaphor became particularly paramount in the course of the Iran … View 1979 Iranian Revolution Research Papers on Academia.edu for free. 1977-1978: Carter's visit. In the late 1970s, the Pahlavi Dynasty was overthrown and replaced by a new Islamic Republic of Iran. Suspension of social and sports activities, 141. “The final days of the revolution, February 9, 10, 11, also show the importance of crowds. The National Front party, which had earlier opposed Western domination of the oil industry, was revived in late 1977 by Dr. Karim Sanjabi and called on the Shah to hold free and fair elections, restore the constitution of 1905, respect freedom of speech, free political prisoners, and allow for an independent Iran in foreign affairs. Workers organized demonstrations in Ifsahan, where the government declared martial law and shot down the demonstrators. Here we look at artwork advertising films pre-Revolutionary Iran. Eventually, protestors wanted to overthrow the Shah and install an Islamic, democratic republic. Forty years ago, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini spearheaded a revolution that deposed a monarchy in Iran. revolution at about the same time the shah did that is to say, in mid-November 1978. The shah's attempt to use Iran's vastly expanded oil revenues after 1973 for an unrealistically ambitious industrial and construction program and a massive military buildup greatly strained Iran's human and institutional resources and caused severe economic and social dislocation. Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Iran on February 1. 1976-1977 - Coming of the Revolution. From October of 1977 to February of 1979, the people of Iran called for the end of the monarchy but they didn't necessarily agree on what should replace it. Throughout the campaign, some participants strove to encourage a more Muslim way of life (tabriz) and respect the religious clerics (ulama). Learn More About ICNC's Translations Program. Despite the hostile slogan of “Death to the Shah,” the Iranians had just led one of the largest nonviolent revolutions in history. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1977–1980, Volume X, Iran: Revolution, January 1977–November 1979 Note to Readers: This volume has not yet been published. In Qum, two students were killed during a street protest. In fact, some people would say that the 1963 protests were a dress rehearsal to the 1977-79 revolution. Iran Table of Contents. When employees of Tehran’s electrical system and water system stopped working, they shut down the city. Here is an overview of the events that led up to the Iranian revolution, as well as the events in the revolution and the aftermath. The new materials complement but do not duplicate previous DNSA collections on the period of the revolution (Iran: The Making of U.S. Policy, 1977-1980) and Iran-Contra (The Iran-Contra Affair: The Making of a Scandal, 1983-1988). This was the beginning of Iranian revolution. The Iranian Revolution, also known as the Islamic Revolution, was the revolution that transformed Iran from an absolute monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, one of the leaders of the revolution and founder of the Islamic Republic. Yet they were quite similar with regard to some of their basic characteristics, which may also help explain many of the divergences between them. Iranians all over the country were dissatisfied with the regime and viewed it as having failed on its economic pro… Iranian Revolution - Iranian Revolution - Aftermath: On April 1, following overwhelming support in a national referendum, Khomeini declared Iran an Islamic republic. The 1906 Constitution required the Shah to adhere to the laws of Islam and to gain the approval of the Parliament (majlis). A critical mass of Iranians reached the conclusion that a full revolution was the only answer. By Rasmus Christian Elling, University of Copenhagen. Again, Khomeini and Shari’atmadari encouraged Iranians to attend services forty days later, on May 10. The Iranian revolution of 1979 marked the advent of a new political era for the country, the ramifications of which were felt across the Muslim world. Initially, protestors wanted to reestablish 1906-1909 laws that created a constitutional monarchy. Qum’s 4,000 theology students, in the meantime, initiated street protests but were quickly shut down by the police, who killed two students in the clash. As indicated on the Status of the Series page, the current status of this volume is “Under Declassification Review.” In January 1979, Shah Reza Pahlavi left Tehran for an “extended vacation”. Hair salon in Tehran in 1977: "This is a scene you would no longer expect to see in Iran - but even after the Islamic Revolution, hairdressers continued to exist," says Prof Afshar. From the Iranian revolution of 1977-1979 to the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-1988, through the painful days of the Green Movement, and then now when … National Organization of University Teachers. Den iranske revolution i 1979 forandrede Iran fra et autokratisk, vestlig orienteret monarki, under styret af shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, til en islamisk teokratisk republik under ayatollah Khomeini. Agitation in Iran was visible by May 1977 in predominantly intellectual circles. A group of lawyers—upset by the government’s interference in the judiciary—drafted a strongly worded manifesto chronicling the legal abuses that had occurred under the Shah’s regime. When banned from holding demonstrations, University of Tehran activists stood in silence in front of their library, quietly agitating for freedom of speech. Iran and the United States have had no formal diplomatic relations since April 1980. The Iranian revolution. By late 1976 and early 1977, it was evident that the Iranian economy was in trouble. Related: The US and Iran part II - the Shah and the revolution. Of all his images of the revolution, his photograph of Amir-Abbas Hoveyda, Iran’s prime minister from 1965 to 1977, in a morgue might be the most unnerving. Ford continued to shower Iran with military aid from 1974-1977. Iran was on a good way in the 1950's but an Anglo-American coup deposed the democratically elected Prime Minister, Mosaddegh, and put their puppet Shah in his place. The demonstrations came to a head in 1979 when the upheaval went nationwide. To put it into perspective, in 1977 — two years before Iran’s Islamic Revolution — 44.5% of the population was 25 or younger. “I could see that the wave of religious passion raised by Khomeini in Iran was not going to stop at its border; it was going to spread into the Muslim world. In December, a giant wave of demonstrators shouted, “God is Great” from their rooftops. In nearly every demonstration, a few campaigners responded to police aggression with violence. President Jimmy Carter issued a statement backing the Shah. Despite the opposition leaders’ efforts to dampen the militancy of the demonstrations, the protestors increased their level of enthusiasm and radicalism over the next few days. On 1 February 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini, made a dramatic return from exile in Paris. The mass of Iranians drew a different conclusion from the day on which helicopter gun-ships hovered above unarmed Iranians packed into city squares, raining bullets upon them. For Washington, the revolution represented a devastating strategic loss. On May 10 1978, police violently repressed demonstrations in 24 towns, with violence escalating noticeably in Tehran and Qum, where troops broke into the homes of religious leaders and killed theology students taking sanctuary there. Contacts are carried out through the Iranian Interests Section of the Pakistani Embassy in Washington, D.C., and the US Interests Section of the Swiss Embassy in Tehran. Documentation on Ball ’s mission is scheduled for publication in Foreign Relations, 1977–1980, vol. On February 11, 1979, the Islamic Revolution swept the country. It had the fourth-largest air force and fifth-largest military on the globe. Revolutionen er opdelt i to perioder, i den første periode vælter en alliance af liberale, venstreradikale og religiøse grupper shahen. This proved to be the tipping point for the Shah, whose country’s economy was supported almost entirely by oil. Finally, in 1977, the people of Iran began demonstrating against their leader, taking to the streets in protest. The blood-letting became known as “Black Friday” and drew the attention of the U.S. government, the Shah’s chief ally. 1977–1980, Volume V, European Security, 1977–1983 1977–1980, Volume VII, Poland, 1977–1981 1977–1980, Volume X, Iran: Revolution, January 1977–November 1979 Iran 1979 und heute Was von der Revolution übrig blieb. Iranian police as well as SAVAK, the Shah’s secret police, often cracked down on demonstrations and strikes by shooting at protesters. The Iranian Revolution occurred between 1977 and 1979, beginning with a series of demonstrations and ending with the overthrow of the Shah. The Iranian Revolution, most historians argue, was an urban phenomenon in which mass demonstrations in major cities led to the spectacular downfall of the shah in 1979. After two days, the military intervened to quash the uprising, which had been the largest public protest since 1963. Workers went on industrial strikes throughout the summer, demanding health insurance, bonuses, and wage increases. To put it into perspective, in 1977 — two years before Iran’s Islamic Revolution — 44.5% of the population was 25 or younger. Shapour Bakhtiar as his new prime minister with the help of Supreme Army Councils couldn't control the situation in the country anymore. The revolution was started by the hypocritical US government, so please do not say Islamic revolution or any other bs. Iran Is a Military Beast (It the Year Was 1977) Iran used to be an American allies, but has been stuck with old U.S. equipment since its revolution made Tehran hostile to Washington. Stephan, Maria J. and Mohsen Sazegara “Iran’s Islamic Revolution and Nonviolent Struggle” in: Stephan, Maria J. A turning point came on January 7, 1978. . A group of lawyers—upset by the government’s interference in the judiciary—drafted a strongly worded manifesto chronicling the legal abuses that had occurred under the Shah’s regime. Forty days later, on March 29, attendees of a commemorative religious service in Yazd were energized by the words of a fiery preacher, who inspired them to take to the streets shouting “Death to the Shah.” The police again shut down the street protest by firing at the crowd, precipitating a three-day crisis that killed over 100. The Hamid Naficy Iranian Movie Posters Collection at Northwestern University features films produced between 1966 and 2014. Celebrating its 35th anniversary, Iran’s Islamic Revolution shocked the world and redrew the map of global alliances. Pakistan serves as Iran's protecting power in the United States, while Switzerland serves as the United States' protecting power in Iran. The students also targeted U.S. President Nixon because of his military support of the Shah; they dribbled basketballs on the path of the Nixon-Shah motorcade, an allusion to a popular photograph circulating of Fidel Castro playing basketball. This process caused three upheavals to occur in 40-day cycles. The 1906 Constitution required the Shah to adhere to the laws of Islam and to gain the approval of the Parliament (majlis). Four decades have now passed since a mass political movement resulted in the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran. By late 1976 and early 1977, it was evident that the Iranian economy was in trouble. But they failed, for they had nothing to contribute or to share with the millions of Iranians who, decades after the Iranian revolution of 1977-79, had no use for their obsolete ideologies. Prime Minister Bakhtiyar dissolved the oppressive infrastructure of the state, including SAVAK. On 1 February 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini, made a dramatic return from exile in Paris. A popular uprising, driven by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini from exile in France, toppled the US-backed leadership ofMohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. . Bashiriyeh, Hossein. Here we look at artwork advertising films pre-Revolutionary Iran. (ed). In some of its basic characteristics, the revolution did not conform to the usual norms of Western revolutions, because the state did not represent just an ordinary dictatorship but an absolute and arbitrary system that lacked political legitimacy and a social base virtually across the whole of the society. Die Islamische Revolution (persisch انقلاب اسلامی Enqelāb-e Eslāmi), von säkularen Gruppierungen auch als „Iranische Revolution“ bezeichnet, war eine vielschichtige Bewegung, die 1979 zur Absetzung von Schah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi und zur Beendigung der Monarchie im Iran führte. Every opposition group, and some in- . As indicated on the Status of the Series page, the current status of this volume is “Under Declassification Review.” Registered users can login to the website. The Iranian Revolution of 1977-79 was the first in a series of mass popular civil insurrections which would result in the overthrow of authoritarian regimes in dozens of countries over the next three decades. On January 16 1979, the Shah left Iran. The Iranian Revolution was the Islamic revolution that replaced the secular monarchy of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi with a theocracy led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Iranians celebrated the victory by embracing soldiers in the street and stuffing flowers in the barrels of their rifles. Iran’s military spending went from $293 million in 1963 to $7.3 billion in 1977… Before the Revolution Die Auflehnung gegen das Schah-Regime führte 1979 zur Islamischen Revolution in Iran. Its causes continue to be the subject of historical debate and are believed to have stemmed partly from a conservative backlash opposing the westernization, modernization and secularization efforts of the Western-backed Shah, as well as from a more popular reaction to social injustice and other shortcomings of the ancien régime. The National Front party, which had earlier opposed Western domination of the oil industry, was revived in late 1977 by Dr. Karim Sanjabi and called on the Shah to hold free and fair elections, restore the constitution of 1905, respect freedom of speech, free political prisoners, and allow for an independent Iran in foreign affairs. By late 1976 and early 1977, it was evident that the Iranian economy was in trouble. On September 8 the Shah declared martial law in Tehran and other cities and ordered the killing of any demonstrators who refused to disperse. In August, a fire burned down a movie theater with several hundred people trapped inside, and mourners blamed SAVAK even without decisive evidence. Iran seems mostly relaxed, because there is no serious threat to the system. In 1976 they got married, and in 1977 Dave started sending out applications to teach at dental schools in minority-Christian countries. Background to the Revolution Shah Reza Pahlevi, returning to Iran after a week-long exile … By late 1970s, the economy had stagnated, and inflationled to a higher cost of living. Die Islamische Revolution (persisch انقلاب اسلامی Enqelāb-e Eslāmi), von säkularen Gruppierungen auch als „Iranische Revolution“ bezeichnet, war eine vielschichtige Bewegung, die 1979 zur Absetzung von Schah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi und zur Beendigung der Monarchie im Iran führte. On February 18, 1978, peaceful demonstrations occurred in twelve cities on the fortieth-day anniversary of the death of the Qum students. 113. Poets formed a Writers’ Association to call for an end to censorship and the activity of SAVAK, the Shah’s secret police. The Global Nonviolent Action Database is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license unless otherwise noted. Iranians sought to end the repressive dictatorship of the Shah, who was seen as both corrupt and beholden to extravagant Western governments. Revolutionaries would use the social authority of the clergy by yelling quotes from supportive ulama at government soldiers in order to dissuade them from firing on protestors. Declarations by organizations and institutions, 060. X, Iran: Revolution, January 1977–November 1979. In January 1979, Shah Reza Pahlavi left Tehran for an “extended vacation”. The Iranian Revolution: why 1979’s uprising still shapes the Middle East Try 6 issues of BBC History Magazine or BBC History Revealed for only £9.99 Forty years ago, Iran’s Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi fled Tehran – and 2,500 years of monarchy ended, to be replaced by an Islamic republic. Due to the Shah’s economic reforms, Iran had ascended into the ranks as a globally formidable industrial economy. image caption Iran has imposed a compulsory dress code on women since the revolution The present government is probably more liberal than any other since the revolution. The new materials complement but do not duplicate previous DNSA collections on the period of the revolution (Iran: The Making of U.S. Policy, 1977-1980) and Iran-Contra (The Iran-Contra Affair: The Making of a Scandal, 1983-1988). A wave of strikes in late 1978 shut down the Iranian economy, with peaks on October 6 (when Khomeini was expelled to Paris) and October 16 (the fortieth day after Black Friday). The Hamid Naficy Iranian Movie Posters Collection at Northwestern University features films produced between 1966 and 2014. Iran Is a Military Beast (It the Year Was 1977) Iran used to be an American allies, but has been stuck with old U.S. equipment since its revolution made Tehran hostile to Washington. He issued demonstration permits in exchange for the protestors’ agreement to demonstrate in a prescribed area and avoid personal attacks on the Shah in their slogans. III. As a concession the Shah appointed former opposition-leader Bakhtiyar as Prime Minister. Forty years ago today, February 11, 1979, Iran’s Islamic revolution culminated in the ascension to power of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. The Shah was put in place in World War II, after England and Russia forced the abdication of his father, who refused to let Iran be used as a transport corridor for Allied supplies. Agitation in Iran was visible by May 1977 in predominantly intellectual circles. A National Organization of University Teachers began fighting for academic freedom while university and seminary students called for academic freedom in the schools. Four decades have now passed since a mass political movement resulted in the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran. In Qum, the headquarters of the ulama (clergy), seminaries and bazaars closed in protest and the ulama staged a protest meeting, articulating their goals as calling for dissolution of the single party and peaceful release of political prisoners. Le chah fut contraint de se montrer bon élève et de ne plus censurer ni emprisonner systématiquement les écrivains et les intellectuels libéraux ou de gauche. Strikers brought bazaars, schools, government ministries, and the oil industry virtually to a standstill. The revolution of February 1979 was a revolt of the society against the state. Consequently, by 1978, Iran had the most highly advanced, best-trained military in the Persian Gulf area. The regime made economic reforms to cut inflation. However, the causes of revolutionary discontent can be traced back decades, and must first be analyzed. Sanjabi and the two other leaders of the National Front—Foruhar and Bakhtiyar—also accused the Shah of wrecking the economy by neglecting agriculture. Religious leaders (ulama) such as Ayatollah Khomeini and Ayatollah Shari’atmadari were the most critical figures in rallying support for the revolution. Leading up to the beginning of the Iranian Revolution, Iranians had grown increasingly disillusioned with the Shah. Studying at Tehran University in 1977: While many women were already in higher education at the time of the revolution, the subsequent years saw a marked increase in the … In September of that year, a general strike took place across the … These small concessions were enough to temporarily pacify the public, who supported a contented Shari’atmadari rather than Khomeini, who still agitated for overthrow of the Shah. Iranian Revolution Nov 21, 1977. From 1941 to 1979, Iran was ruled by King Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah. ↩ Not further identified. 1978: one last fling in Iran before the revolution. Lindsay Dolan, 05/06/2009; revised by Aden Tedla, 02/9/2011, Included Participation by More Than One Social Class, 003. Within a short time after the Iranian revolution of 1977-79, a number of studies were published concerning the dramatic process. nationalinterest.org - Iran used to be an American allies, but has been stuck with old U.S. equipment since its revolution made Tehran hostile to Washington.Key point: … Iran Is a Military Beast (It the Year Was 1977… ↩ Foundations of … The revolution was mostly non-violent, although there were incidents of armed struggle. Emphasizing the interaction between political organizations and social forces, Ervand Abrahamian discusses Iranian society and politics during the period between the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-1909 and the Islamic Revolution of 1977-1979. Related: The US and Iran part II - the Shah and the revolution. Iran Table of Contents. Opposition Pamphlets The third contemporaneous source is the multitude of opposition public pro-nouncements which were written, copied, and distributed covertly throughout Iran during the course of the revolution. On the theme of presidential interest in … Iran’s Islamic Revolution shook the world in 1979, with currents that continue to be felt today. When the demonstrators descended to the streets they were rolled over by tanks, marking the first of several bloody clashes between protestors and police that month. Foreign Relations of the United States, 1977–1980, Volume X, Iran: Revolution, January 1977–November 1979 Note to Readers: This volume has not yet been published. The crowd, in fact you can say, becomes the main actor in Iranian perceptions of Iranian history.”. All Rights Reserved. Cinema Rex fire The ruling government of Iran reported that Islamic militants set the fire, while the anti-Shah protesters blamed the intelligence service of the nation, SAVAK for setting the fire. Carter’s success in Middle Eastern diplomacy was likewise undercut by the collapse of the strongest and staunchest American ally in the Muslim world, the Shah of Iran.Since the monarchy had been restored by a CIA-aided coup in 1953, Reza Shah Pahlavi had used Iran’s oil revenues to finance rapid modernization of his country and the purchase of American arms. Under continued pressure he invited back Khomeini, who, upon his February 10, 1979 arrival in Qum, publicly denounced Baktiyar’s conciliatory regime and consolidated power in the Revolutionary Council. The feast passed without repression, although 5,000 students staged a sit-in, 700 oil workers went on strike, and countless more Iranians protested in the street. Elements within the clergy promptly moved to exclude their former left-wing, nationalist, and intellectual allies from any positions of power in the new regime, and a return to conservative social values was enforced. On that date police violently repressed demonstrations in 24 towns, with violence escalating noticeably in Tehran and Qum, where troops broke into the homes of religious leaders and killed theology students taking sanctuary there. Ten days later Bakhtiar went into hiding, eventually to find exile in Paris. The revolution itself was not only confined to Iran. Note: Search results are listed in alphabetical order. A government editorial in a newspaper accused anti-regime clerics of working with communists and the Ayatollah Khomeini of licentious behavior and of being a British spy. Iranska revolutionen (persiska: انقلاب اسلامی ایران "Irans islamiska revolution"), även känd i Iran som den Islamiska revolutionen, [1] var ett händelseförlopp 1978 och 1979 under vilket Irans monark (shah) Mohammad Reza Pahlavi störtades och ersattes av en islamistisk regering med Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini som religiös ledare. The Global Nonviolent Action Database is a project of Swarthmore College, including the Peace and Conflict Studies Program, the Peace Collection, and the Lang Center for Civic and Social Responsibility. In March, during a three-day crisis that followed a commemorative religious service in Yazd, police killed over a 100 protesters. A major shift occurred in June 1978 when the urban poor and working class people joined what had previously been an upper-middle class movement. Many Iranians were upset by the Shah’s administration because, even in the wake of a national oil boom, wealth was unequally distributed. In the first phase of the revolution, much of the nonviolent resistance arose from the creativity of the students. Iran 1979: the Islamic revolution that shook the world. Iran was a beautiful Islamic country back in the days that gave people the freedom to choose and at same time respect the religion, once the US initiated the revolution..well the rest is history, watch your tv and you'll see.

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